APPENDIX 1 - Definitions


A set of theories, methods and techniques for the study of human behaviour from physical remains of past activities.

Archaeological Collection

Archaeological objects and archaeological records.

Archaeological Object

An artifact, a sample or any material that is of archaeological interest.

Archaeological Record

Written, graphic, visual, or electronic record that is prepared and assembled that relates to the identification, evaluation, documentation, study, preservation, or excavation of an archaeological site, and that is vital to understanding the contexts and significance of cultural resources.

Archaeological Research

Archaeological excavations, surveys or inventories conducted where tangible evidence or potential tangible evidence of past human activities is located.  Archaeological research also includes the collection and study of archaeological objects and any intrusive and non-intrusive work conducted at an archaeological site, feature or structure.

Archaeological Resource

Any tangible evidence of human activity of historical, cultural or scientific interest. For example, a feature, structure or archaeological object, located at or from an archaeological site or an object recorded as an isolated archaeological find are Archaeological Resources.

Archaeological Site

A place or area where tangible evidence of  human activity of historical, cultural or scientific interest is or was located in situ on, below or above the ground, or lands underwater.  The identification, recovery and understanding of this evidence can be achieved using archaeological research methods.

Cultural Landscape

Any geographical area that has been modified, influenced or given special cultural meaning by people.

Cultural Resource

A cultural resource “is a human work, or a place that gives evidence of human activity or has spiritual or cultural meaning, and that has been determined to be of historic value” (CRM Policy, 1994, p.101).

Funerary Object

Item directly associated with a cemetery, burial ground and/or human remains that is known to be part of a burial.

Grave Marker

A sign, headstone, monument, cairn, crib, grave house, mortuary pole, fence or other type of marker, or a clearing used to identify the existence of a cemetery or burial ground.

Human Remains

Skeletal remains, cremated remains and other traces of human bodies, within and outside cemeteries and burial grounds. Human remains are not considered cultural or archaeological resources.

Isolated Archaeological Find

A single archaeological object that is or was located in situ on, below or above the ground, or land underwater, such as a single projectile point, or fragments from a single ceramic vessel. Other criteria may be applied to the definition at the discretion of the archaeologist, provided a rationale is included.

Heritage Areas and Other Areas Administered by Parks Canada

Heritage Area: Federal land administered by the Parks Canada Agency, that is:

  • National Parks of Canada (including National Park Reserves of Canada);

  • National Historic Sites of Canada administered by PCA (including historic canals);

  • National Marine Conservation Areas of Canada (including Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park);

  • Any other federal lands administered by PCA (including Pingo Canadian Landmark, and submerged lands).



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