Fundy National Park Draft Management Plan, 2023

Fundy National Park

National Park of Canada

Draft Management Plan


Title: Fundy National Park of Canada, 2023

Organization: Parks Canada Agency

1. Introduction

Parks Canada administers one of the finest and most extensive systems of protected natural and historic places in the world. Parks Canada’s mandate is to protect and present these places for the benefit and enjoyment of current and future generations. Future-oriented, strategic management of each national historic site, national park, national marine conservation area and heritage canal administered by Parks Canada supports its vision:

Canada’s treasured natural and historic places will be a living legacy, connecting hearts and minds to a stronger, deeper understanding of the very essence of Canada.

The Canada National Parks Act and the Parks Canada Agency Act require Parks Canada to prepare a management plan for each national park. The Fundy National Park of Canada Management Plan, onceapproved by the Minister responsible for Parks Canada and tabled in Parliament, ensures Parks Canada’s accountability to Canadians, outlining how park management will achieve measurable results in support of its mandate.

First Nations, stakeholders, partners and the Canadian public were involved in the preparation of the management plan, helping to shape the future direction of the national park.The plan sets clear, strategic direction for the management and operation of Fundy National Park by articulating a vision, key strategies and objectives. Parks Canada will report annually on progress toward achieving the plan objectives and will review the plan every ten years or sooner if required.

This plan is not an end in and of itself. Parks Canada will maintain an open dialogue on the implementation of the management plan, to ensure that it remains relevant and meaningful. The plan will serve as the focus for ongoing engagement and, where appropriate, consultation, on the management of Fundy National Park in years to come.

2. Significance of Fundy National Park

Parks Canada acknowledges the lands upon which we gather in New Brunswick to be the unceded territories of the Mi’gmaq, Wolastoqiyik and Peskotomuhkati Nations.

Fundy National Park was established in 1948. It protects 206 km2 of the Fundy Coast Ecoregion which includes sheltered coves, salt marshes, estuaries and rugged cliffs that rise 150 metres from the Bay of Fundy, which is home to the highest tides in the world at over 11 metres. Fundy National Park also includes the Southern Uplands Ecoregion. This natural region is characterized by a rolling, hilly plateau cut by deep valleys and cascading rivers. Within the Southern Uplands Ecoregion, the topography reaches over 400 metres, with the Upper Salmon River, Point Wolfe River, and Goose River carving steep-sided ravines down to the coast. While it does not include marine components or the intertidal zone, the national park protects the coast and spectacular view planes looking out to the Bay of Fundy and across to the northwestern coast of Nova Scotia. Fundy National Park is considered the core of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Fundy Biosphere Reserve, designated in 2007 to protect and encourage sustainable tourism in the biosphere region.

The Fundy National Park area is also rich in human-history stories distinct to the Upper Bay of Fundy - stories yet to be uncovered and communicated in discovering the rich traditional and cultural values and experiences of the diverse communities and families deeply rooted in this part of New Brunswick.

One of the most important attractions for visitors to the region and to Fundy National Park is to experience the tides and tidal flats. The dramatic impact and size of the tides – the highest in the world! - can be seen in the rise and fall of the local fishing fleet tied to the wharf in Alma, at times sitting on the ocean floor. Known as the “Land of Salt and Fir”, the landscapes, climate and biodiversity of Fundy National Park are directly linked to the ocean and its immense tides. The awe-inspiring views and wide vistas up and down the coast characterize the special nature of Fundy National Park.


3. Planning context

Policy context

Fundy National Park is located in southern New Brunswick, nestled in the southwest limits of Albert County and bordered on the south by the Chignecto Bay in the Upper Bay of Fundy. The surrounding area is sparsely populated, with the largest nearby community being the newly amalgamated village of Fundy Albert, which includes the former village of Alma. The major population centres of the region include Saint John, Fredericton, and Moncton. Highway 114 bisects the park for 21 kilometres, extending from Wolfe Lake in the northwest to Alma in the southeast, and provides a transportation link to the Trans-Canada Highway (Map 1: Regional Setting).

European exploration of the Bay of Fundy region began in the 16th century, with the Bay of Fundy appearing on Portuguese maps by 1558.Footnote 1 Europeans exploring the Fundy coastline encountered the Mi’gmaq, Wolastoqiyik and Peskotomuhkati peoples, who have lived in the region since time immemorial. Gradually, European settlements were established throughout the region, with devastating impacts on Indigenous peoples. Within 100 years of the contact period, European diseases accounted for a 75 percent decline of the Indigenous populationsFootnote 2. By the latter half of the 19th century, many of the region’s Indigenous peoples were living on small parcels of “reserve” land, which often had few resources.

European settlement in the surrounding area began in the 1600s with the establishment of the Acadian village of Chipoudie (Shepody) in 1698, approximately 30 km east of the park boundaries. By 1755, approximately 3,000 Acadians were living in the Chignecto Bay area, with about 600 living at Chipoudie.Footnote 3

During Le Grand Dérangement in 1755, the Chignecto Bay villages were burned and many inhabitants forcibly removed by British forces. New European settlers of primarily Pennsylvania-German origin began to arrive in the surrounding area in 1766, followed by English, Scottish, and Irish settlers. The first Euro-Canadian settlements within the present-day national park began in the early 19th century. Early settlements tended to cluster around river mouths close to logging-related work, transportation, shipbuilding, and fishing in Chignecto Bay. Remnants of homesteads, roads, cemeteries, schools, bridges, and industry-related structures such as dams, wharves, and mills are found throughout the park, associated with past communities such as Point Wolfe, Alma West, Hastings, and Herring Cove. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, industrial uses such as logging had a profound impact on the landscape with as much as 70 percent of the forest being cut, and lakes and riverbeds modified for log-driving and water-powered mills. In 1948, the lands were expropriated for the creation of the national park, which officially opened to the public in 1950.

The biophysical context and park boundaries contribute to the importance of Fundy National Park as a core area of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve. Freshwater rivers, streams and lakes occupy only a small portion of the park landscape yet are critical to the healthy functioning of the park. The park protects only a portion of each of two main river systems, the Upper Salmon and Point Wolfe river watersheds. The remainder of each upper watershed is embedded in an industrial forestry landscape outside of the park.

The map shows the regional geographic setting of Fundy National Park.
Map 1: Regional Setting

As a key tourism destination in southern New Brunswick, Fundy National Park welcomes over 300,000 visitors per year to enjoy spectacular ocean views and landscapes, camping, hiking, biking, and other outdoor recreation. The community of Alma supports a vibrant fishing industry which complements the national park experience with the daily activities of a working wharf within walking distance of the park entrance. Visitors can also experience a variety of sites, local shops and services in Alma while enjoying the national park. (Map 2: Local Setting)

Parks Canada and Mi'gmawe'l Tplu'taqnn Incorporated (MTI), signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 2016 establishing the MTI/PC Advisory Committee table. Parks Canada and the Wolastoqey Nation in New Brunswick continue to form collaborative and positive relationships. The management plan has been prepared in consultation with Indigenous partners in the spirit of our Treaty relationship and in spirit of Rights Reconciliation Agreements. 

The 2011 management plan provided management direction for maintaining and improving ecological integrity, the recovery of species at risk, increasing visitation through diversified marketing strategies and visitor offers, and engaging with Indigenous partners through collaborative work. Since 2011, Fundy National Park continues to collaborate with Mi’gmaq and Wolastokiyik Nations, including the MTI/Parks Canada Advisory Committee table which meets at regular intervals. Considerable progress has also been made with partners in active management and recovery of species at risk, notably improving the ecological integrity of the aquatic ecosystem which have shown five-year trends in increasing numbers of salmon and establishing Parks Canada’s first research chair in the Atlantic region. Visitation has increased with diversified visitor offers in the fall, winter and spring seasons, through major infrastructure investments such as those in the Chignecto Recreation Area trails and facilities. Major infrastructure investments have also focused on highways and buildings such as the new Visitor Reception Centre at Wolfe Lake, Salt and Fir Centre, and maintenance compound. Other major investments focused on the park’s signature saltwater pool and the addition of new camping areas at Lakeview and Cannontown.

Map showing Local Setting
Map 2: Local Setting

A 2020 State of the Park Assessment reconfirmed the general direction from the 2011 plan with continued focus on active management to increase the sustainability of all park operations, maintaining and improving ecological integrity, improving relationships and collaborations with Indigenous nations, and increasing knowledge of cultural resources. Climate change presents challenges in the management of ecological impacts to certain species like Atlantic salmon, among others. Restoration programs, such as the Atlantic salmon recovery project, respond to these challenges by increasing the population, building resilience and adaptability to change. As climate change impacts become increasingly evident, collaborative and adaptive strategies will be important to support natural resource management.  More frequent and severe storms will continue to expose the vulnerability of natural and cultural resources, and infrastructure in the park with increasing damage and extensive costs. Understanding the extent of climate change impacts and taking action towards climate change mitigation and adaptation are an emerging area of focus for park management.

For its size, Fundy National Park maintains one of the largest inventories of assets and operations in Canadian National Parks, and since 2021, operates a year-round visitor offer. For the intent of this plan, “operational sustainability” refers to the long-term, high-quality delivery of the Parks Canada mandate using existing resources. Considering that Fundy National Park is operating year-round within a changing climate and rising operating costs, work is continually required to assess the priority and future viability of all operations and infrastructure. Actions to increase the sustainability of core mandate operations are critical to improve the quality of service, value, and experience for all visitors and will include modernizing or upgrading some operations and decommissioning or scaling down others. Sustainable operations are essential to advance cooperative management with Indigenous partners, protect park ecosystems, ensure the well-being of staff, the enjoyment of visitors and the success of the local economy. Most importantly, sustainable park operations are key to fully realizing the objectives presented in this management plan over the next decade.

4. Development of the draft management plan

This draft management plan has been developed through an extensive engagement process with MTI, Kopit Lodge and Wolastoqey Nation in New Brunswick, partners, stakeholders and the public. Discussions and feedback strengthened the management direction in the draft plan which is reflected in the vision, key strategies, objectives and targets.

During the first phase of engagement in 2021, a management planning newsletter summarizing the proposed vision and priority issues was posted on the park website and circulated to Indigenous partners and key stakeholders with notifications sent to elected officials. Meetings were held with MTI, Kopit Lodge and Wolastoqey Nation in New Brunswick early in the planning process with the development of the State of the Park Report and the scoping phase. Additional meetings with Indigenous partners were held to discuss the priority issues and opportunities. Conservation and tourism stakeholders, along with municipal, provincial and community organizations, also participated in meetings with park managers to discuss the future of the park and the management planning priorities.

5. Vision

The natural beauty of the Upper Bay of Fundy, its awe-inspiring tides and pristine coastline nestled against an expanse of Acadian Forest, provides an enduring backdrop for exploring and connecting with nature and culture at Fundy National Park. Fundy remains one of the largest tracts of undeveloped coastline from the Bay of Fundy to Florida. Strong collaboration between Indigenous partners, local communities and businesses and the national park supports rural economies and year-round tourism experiences.

Building on this foundation, and all through a lens of sustainable operations, the vision for the next 15 years includes focused efforts on: creating a more inclusive, accessible, and diverse experience for park visitors; supporting biodiversity in a changing climate and protecting species at risk; improving understanding of the impacts of climate change on all facets of park operations and taking action to mitigate and adapt; furthering the role of the park within regional landscapes; improving a collective understanding of culture and history; and growing relationships with Indigenous communities.

Managing these efforts sustainably within the existing capacity of the park will improve the overall quality of assets and services benefiting generations of visitors, staff and collaborators to come.

Fundy National Park follows recommendations set out in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a guideline to address rights and reconciliation. Indigenous culture will be increasingly present in Fundy National Park with cooperative management providing a structure for shared decision making, mutual learning and respect. Working together towards a ‘Two-Eyed Seeing’ understanding supports Indigenous and western perspectives in identifying and achieving objectives aimed at conservation, ecological integrity, visitor experience and cultural heritage. As the cooperative management relationship grows and strengthens so too will Canadians’ and visitors’ appreciation and understanding of Indigenous peoples through opportunities to experience language, culture and history through Indigenous-led programming, special events and outreach education.

As a core area of the UNESCO Fundy Biosphere Reserve, Fundy National Park will strengthen its collaboration with industry and regional conservation partners improving ecological connectivity and protection of significant conservation areas including adjacent coastal environments.

6. Key strategies

Fundy National Park is committed to be a place where truth and reconciliation are the foundation of the relationship with Indigenous partners. Growing and learning together in the protection and presentation of the natural and cultural values of Fundy National Park will build the way forward, leading to a strong cooperative management relationship guided by the Treaty principles of peace and friendship, collaboration and respect. The intent of this strategy is to move towards cooperative management of Fundy National Park while at the same time learning more about the cultural use and history of the Fundy region and Indigenous languages, priorities and interests. 

Key strategy 1: Grow together, Learn Together

Fundy National Park is committed to be a place where truth and reconciliation are the foundation of the relationship with Indigenous partners. Growing and learning together in the protection and presentation of the natural and cultural values of Fundy National Park will build the way forward, leading to a strong cooperative management relationship guided by the Treaty principles of peace and friendship, collaboration and respect. The intent of this strategy is to move towards cooperative management of Fundy National Park while at the same time learning more about the cultural use and history of the Fundy region and Indigenous languages, priorities and interests. 

Objective 1.1

The principles and foundations of cooperative management of Fundy National Park are established in accordance with Rights Reconciliation Agreement(s).


  • Organizational structures are in place and functioning to support cooperative management of Fundy National Park between the Mi’gmaq Nations in New Brunswick and Parks Canada by 2033.

Objective 1.2

Indigenous languages are increasingly present and visible in Fundy National Park operations.


  • The extent of Indigenous language, place names and interpretation in Fundy National Park increases compared to the 2022-2023 baseline.
  • Indigenous culture and language are integrated into employee orientation and delivered by Indigenous people.

Objective 1.3

Indigenous staffing increases in the Parks Canada Field Unit that supports Fundy National Park.


  • Through growing networks of Indigenous collaborators, the recruitment of Indigenous employees in the New Brunswick South Field Unit increases from 2023 levels.

Key strategy 2: Working Together to Improve Ecological Integrity and Connectivity

The intent of this strategy is to advance monitoring and active management within the park and to establish more collaborations with partners outside of the park toward improved ecological connectivity in the broader landscape. The principles of Two-Eyed Seeing, considering Indigenous and western knowledge with the same importance towards monitoring and maintaining ecological integrity, will be a focus in a cooperative management relationship. Inside the park, monitoring will include Indigenous knowledge guiding decisions for active management with a focus on at-risk and culturally important species. Managing the operational footprint, understanding the effects of climate change on ecological processes, and implementing management strategies to adapt to climate change will also be a priority. Continued participation in regional climate change initiatives and academic collaborations will also advance the understanding of potential impacts on the natural and cultural resources in the park and inform mitigation and adaptation actions.

As a protected area, Fundy National Park acts as a core natural area in a diverse landscape consisting of human development, agricultural lands and industrial forests. Outside the park, connectivity will be supported by developing strategic partnerships, sharing information and collaboration thereby improving ecological connectivity within the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Fundy Biosphere Reserve.

Objective 2.1

Ecological monitoring based on a ‘Two-Eyed Seeing’ approach, involving both Indigenous knowledge and western science, assesses and reports on ecological integrity, and guides active management.


  • Ecological integrity measures are reviewed and adjusted in collaboration with Indigenous partners by 2028 in the next State of the Park Assessment.

Objective 2.2

Biodiversity, including species at risk and species of cultural importance is prioritized for protection and recovery.


  • Salmon populations continue an improving trend resulting in ‘fair’ condition in the next State of the Park Assessment.
  • By 2033, the primary productivity of the freshwater ecosystem trends upward or stable over 2015 levels, because of salmon restoration.
  • Indigenous knowledge and guidance influences monitoring and conservation initiatives on species of cultural importance such as salmon, eels, trout, and moose.
  • Fundy’s new multispecies action plan is developed by 2025 considering landscape connectivity, known climate change trends and projections, and including priority recovery actions beyond park boundaries.

Objective 2.3

Ecological connectivity is protected by collaborating with Indigenous partners and other partners to prioritize restoration of connectivity within the park and support collaborative efforts to create and protect ecological corridors around the park.


  • Fundy National Park has established an active working group with Indigenous partners and regional partners to protect and/or improve ecological connectivity by 2028.
  • Ecological corridors within Fundy National Park are protected and effective restoration has started in 2033, based on baseline levels from 2023.

Objective 2.4

Evidence-based models contribute to prioritising restoration efforts and managing the disturbed area footprint within the park and are utilized to support future proposals for infrastructure and/or services.


  • A prioritized restoration plan for Fundy National Park with identified costs and funding sources will guide restoration actions by 2028.
  • By 2033, the restoration plan will be in implementation phase and restoration will be underway according to priority.

Key strategy 3: Climate Resilient and Sustainable Operations Support the Delivery of the Core Mandate and the Character of Fundy National Park

Fundy National Park has an extensive inventory of assets, many of which are original and beyond functional lifespans. To deliver Parks Canada’s core mandate with quality services and experiences for families, campers and hikers and other target markets, over the next 10 years and beyond, a focus on realistic maintenance capacity within existing resources is critical. Strategic assessment of the long-term viability of park operations is required. In some cases, reduction of the quantity of services offered will be required to maintain the highest possible levels of quality, value, and sustainability for the future. This will include understanding the priorities and interests of visitors to identify a range of management options. Facilities and services will be evaluated through a climate-smart lens, with the goal of investing in resilient infrastructure and removing vulnerable components. Aligning operational requirements with available resources is a key focus of this strategy.

Objective 3.1

Operational sustainability is improved through the assessment of composition, condition, cost and revenue generation capability of the asset portfolio, and core mandate priorities.


  • Point Wolfe electrical and water systems assessment is completed by 2025.
  • Asset consolidation is considered, where feasible, with design work for a multi-purpose space prepared by 2025.
  • The condition of park infrastructure is assessed and management options for optimizing the size and composition of the asset portfolio are identified or in action by 2033.
  • Assets that are underutilized, not critical for core program purposes, or redundant, are identified for rationalization and/or divestment by 2033.
  • The condition of buildings improves to ‘fair to good’ in the next State of the Park Assessment.
  • Recreational assets are reviewed by 2025 in view of adapting to modern activities and interests which align with the Parks Canada Mandate.

Objective 3.2

Green procurement results in improved energy efficiency for park operations.


  • Six light fleet administrative passenger vehicles are replaced with hybrid or electric alternatives by 2030 (increasing from current two or 300% increase).
  • Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced through the retrofitting of inefficient heating systems and/or replacement of fuel-oil heating sources with greener alternatives by 2030.

Key Strategy 4: Authentic, Sustainable, Memory-Making Experiences

Fundy National Park experiences high visitation during its year-round operations which supports regional economic development in cooperation with partners and the tourism industry. Visitation in the fall, winter, and spring has grown since the addition of roofed accommodations in 2014. With rising operating costs, an extensive asset portfolio, and a desire to continue to provide high-quality experiences, there is a need to focus on the priorities of park users. A fully accessible visitor experience, from planning to arrival to departure, will be prioritized in this key strategy along with a focus on a sustainable trail network. Protection of ecological integrity will guide visitor use management approaches for high visitor use areas.

Objective 4.1

Visitors experience renewed offers and have a variety of inclusive, accessible options for enjoying facilities and services at Fundy National Park.


  • An accessibility evaluation of facilities identifying key items in the Headquarters area will be addressed, and appropriate changes implemented to remove barriers by 2028.
  • Visitor satisfaction with facilities in Fundy National Park is maintained at over 85% satisfied or very satisfied in the next State of the Park Assessment.

Objective 4.2

Visitors continue to have opportunities to experience sustainable year-round offers and services in Fundy National Park.


  • A baseline for visitor satisfaction during the winter will be established.
  • Weekend occupancy of available winter accommodations is maintained at over 80%.
  • Partnerships or mutual agreements with other regional destinations are established, offering more complete fall, winter and spring season visitation experiences.

Objective 4.3

Individuals, groups, partners, and communities are increasingly engaged in programing and activities at Fundy National Park.


  • Increased opportunities for Indigenous youth to visit the park through direct engagement with community leaders, and the development of more Indigenous interpretation and programming are in place by 2028.
  • Land-based learning, connecting with Elders, Fire Circle, and other Indigenous-led programing are in place by 2033.

Objective 4.4

Visitor experience and ecological protection improves in high visitation areas of Fundy National Park through visitor use management strategies to ensure visitation levels are sustainable.


  • Visitor Use Management Plans are completed for Dickson Falls, Laverty Falls, and Point Wolfe Trailhead by 2030.
  • The proportion of overnight stays in September-October increases from the 2023 baseline, within overnight park capacity limits.
  • A new protocol for counting visitation which includes measuring winter and spring visitation will be developed and implemented by 2026.

Objective 4.5

An enhanced trail network improves conditions for visitors.


  • A trail assessment, taking climate change risks into consideration, guides the restoration, decommissioning and building of new trails by 2028.
  • Visitors report increased satisfaction with trail condition in the next State of the Park Report.
  • Promotion of the backcountry trail network in Fundy National Park, and partner trail networks improves within Fundy National Park, and externally through online communication tools, and in-person promotional events.

Key Strategy 5: Improving our Understanding of Fundy’s Past

This strategy aims to gain a better, more complete understanding of the cultural history of the park which will contribute to the sustainable conservation and management of cultural resources. Through collaboration with Indigenous partners and community stakeholders a better understanding of the condition will be achieved through initiatives like collaborative archaeology. Both on-site and outreach initiatives are important ways to communicate the rich culture and history of Fundy National Park. This strategy will use technology to better communicate the history of the park to visitors. Inspiring a sense of discovery and personal connection between visitors, local communities and the park is an anticipated outcome of this strategy.

Objective 5.1

Knowledge of culture and history improves, contributing to sustainable conservation of cultural resources in Fundy National Park.


  • An Indigenous Knowledge Study, designed and developed by Indigenous partners provides information on the cultural history in and around the park.
  • The inventory of landscape features, archaeological resources and culturally important sites progresses throughout the planning period, resulting in condition ratings in the next State of the Park Assessment.
  • A Cultural Resources Values Statement is complete by 2028.

Objective 5.2

Indigenous knowledge is incorporated into cultural resource protection.


  • Collaborative archaeology processes contribute to the condition assessment of cultural resources in the next State of the Park Assessment.
  • Infrastructure projects and proposals that may impact cultural resources, incorporate meaningful collaboration with Indigenous partners.

Objective 5.3

The cultural history of Fundy National Park inspires a sense of discovery and personal connection.


  • New visitor experience offers are identified and delivered in collaboration with Indigenous partners and community representatives. New non-personal media products which share Indigenous culture, language, stories and history are co-developed in collaboration with Indigenous partners.
  • There is an increasing trend in visitors reporting that they enjoyed their visit, in the next State of the Park Assessment.

7.0 Zoning and Declared Wilderness Area


Parks Canada’s national park zoning system is an integrated approach to the classification of land and water areas in a national park and designates where activities can occur on land or water based on the ability to support those uses.  The zoning system has five categories:
  • Zone I - Special Preservation
  • Zone II - Wilderness
  • Zone III - Natural Environment
  • Zone IV - Outdoor Recreation
  • Zone V - Park Services.

The Zoning Map (Map 3) illustrates the zone designations and environmentally sensitive areas in Fundy National Park.

Proposed amendments from the 2011 management plan are further described below and include:

  • A new Zone I Area to protect rare saltmarsh plant species;
  • Two environmentally sensitive areas to protect species and habitats in Maple Grove and Devil’s Half-Acre;
  • A change from Zone III to Zone II for the coastal area south of Pointe Wolfe Rd; and
  • A change from Zone IV to Zone III for the Chignecto Recreation Area.

The zoning amendments support the direction in Key Strategy 2 with respect to increasing the protection of biodiversity and ecological connectivity. An increased area of zone II wilderness ensures that only minimal visitor use will be considered in this area with no motorized access, infrastructure or facilities. Likewise, the re-zoning of the Chignecto Recreation Area supports the transition from a fully serviced campsite to a less intensive visitor use area with no motorized access and the rehabilitation of roads and areas previously occupied by infrastructure.

The overall proposed changes of each zone in the park, from the 2011 management plan are:
Zone I: 1.58% to 1.59%
Zone II: 88% to 91%
Zone III: 6% to 3%
Zone IV: 4% to 3.9%

Zone I Special Preservation

Zone I areas provide the highest level of protection offered by Parks Canada’s Zoning Policy. Specific areas or features under this zoning deserve special preservation because they contain or support unique, threatened, or endangered natural or cultural features or values, or are among the best examples of a natural region. Preservation is the key consideration. Motorized access and circulation are not permitted, and visitor access is not encouraged in order to protect these features. Special features may be interpreted off-site.

There are five areas within FNP that are categorized as Zone 1 areas. These areas cover approximately 1.5 percent of the park and include:

Point Wolfe Coastal Cliffs – contain one of two known New Brunswick sites of the bird’s-eye primrose, a small herbaceous plant of northern affinity. This area is also one of the best potential nesting locations in the park for the Peregrine Falcon, formerly a species at risk, now recovered through the conservation actions of Parks Canada and its partners. The best examples of the inner Bay of Fundy soft rock (sandstone and conglomerate) coastal cliffs are also located in this zone.

Goose River Coastal Cliffs – contain the second of two known New Brunswick sites of the bird’s-eye primrose. Along this rugged, precipitous coast there are also potential Peregrine Falcon nesting sites. Rossiter Brook Valley – contains stands of rare old red spruce trees.

Caribou Plain – contains excellent examples of black spruce and raised-bog vegetation types, which are very rare in the park and surrounding region. These habitats are sensitive to visitor disturbance.

Point Wolfe River and Bennett Brook Ravines – the east branch of the Pointe Wolfe River and the lower part of Bennett Brook are the only locations in the park where the following rare flora are known to occur: slender spikemoss, squashberry, green spleenwort, a rare sedge species, and fir clubmoss. This area also contains some of the best examples of critical habitat for the endangered Atlantic salmon (inner Bay of Fundy), including some of the largest salmon pools on the Point Wolfe River.

Proposed Zone I Amendments:
A proposed new Zone I Area, south of the mouth of the Upper Salmon River, would protect the Roland’s sea-blite plant which was discovered growing in Fundy National Park in 2016. This provincially, nationally, and globally rare saltmarsh species is only known from a handful of sites in northeastern North America. Annual monitoring will contribute to better understanding the dynamics of plant establishment and movement.

Zone II Wilderness

The purpose of the Zone II designation is to provide a high level of protection for large areas that well represent a natural region and that will be conserved in a wilderness state. Perpetuation of ecosystems with minimal management intervention is encouraged. Visitors experience the remoteness of such zones in ways that are compatible with maintaining the wilderness character such as hiking and backcountry camping. Motorized access and circulation within this zone are not permitted and infrastructure is restricted to rudimentary facilities such as hiking trails and backcountry campsites. There are four areas that have been designated a Zone II Area. Most of the park is designated Zone II – Wilderness. More than 90 percent of the park is designated as Zone II Wilderness.

These Zone II Areas include:

  • Upper Salmon Valley
  • Point Wolfe River Valley
  • Tracey Lake Wilderness Campsite
  • Goose River Wilderness Campsite
  • Marven Lake Wilderness Campsite
  • Chambers Lake Wilderness Campsite
  • McKinley Cabin

Proposed Zone II Amendments
The coastal area south of Point Wolfe Rd to Matthews Head is proposed to change from Zone III to Zone II to increase the conservation and protection in this area of the national park. This will increase Zone II area of the park from 88 to 91 percent.

Zone III Natural Environment

Zone III designations are applied to areas that are managed as natural environments and that provide opportunities for visitors to experience a park’s natural and cultural heritage values through outdoor recreation activities requiring minimal services and facilities of a rustic nature. These areas can sustain a range of outdoor activities, which are compatible with preserving natural settings, including swimming, canoeing, hiking, biking, picnicking, non-motorized boating, snowshoeing, skiing and on-site interpretation. While motorized access may be allowed, it is controlled.

There are two areas within FNP that are categorized as Zone III areas that cover approximately 3 % of the park. These designated Zone III areas include:

  • the small area of Bennett Lake; and
  • land bounded by Point Wolfe Road, Hastings Road and Highway 114 (excluding the Zone IV designations).

Proposed Zone III Amendments:
The Chignecto Recreation Area is proposed to change from Zone IV to Zone III as motorized access is no longer permitted. In Zone III, controlled motorized access may be permitted. The parking lot will remain in Zone IV and roads will be rehabilitated to trails. Group camping may be a future use in this area.

The Point Wolfe to Matthews Head area is proposed to change from Zone III to Zone II to increase conservation and protection in this area of the park.

Zone IV Outdoor Recreation

This designation is given to limited areas which can accommodate a broad range of opportunities for understanding, appreciating and enjoying the park’s heritage values and related essential park services and facilities, in ways that impact the natural and cultural resources of the park to the smallest extent possible. Direct access by motorized vehicles is permitted. Landscaping activities in Zone IV areas will place a greater emphasis on utilizing native species and restoring natural habitats where feasible.

There are seven main Zone IV areas within the park that cover approximately 4 percent of the park’s surface area. These general areas include:

  • Headquarters area, maintenance facilities and pumphouse
  • Day-use areas
  • campgrounds
  • Fundy Motel / Chalets
  • Highway 114
  • Saltwater Pool
  • Golf course
  • All park roads

Proposed Zone IV Amendments:
Two areas of Zone IV will be reduced to accommodate the new proposed Zone III at the Chignecto Recreation Area and the new proposed Zone I to protect Rolland’s sea-blite. The total area of Zone IV will change to just under 4 percent.

Environmentally Sensitive Sites/Areas
Areas which contain resources that are unique, rare, or especially vulnerable to disturbance but which are too small to be considered for designation as a Zone I Area are classified as environmentally sensitive sites. These sites receive a high degree of protection through careful management. Designation as an environmentally sensitive site ensures that the unique values of these sites are considered in future planning, research, and development activities.

The environmentally sensitive sites are described in Appendix 1. The criteria used in identifying these sites include:

  • natural features or habitat of species that are rare nationally, regionally, or locally;
  • fragile ecosystem components that are sensitive to visitor use and/or development; and
  • habitat that is essential to a species for specific periods of its life cycle, such as denning, spawning, breeding, and overwintering areas.

Proposed Amendments:
Two environmentally sensitive areas are proposed to be added as overlays on the zoning map to increase the protection for sensitive species and habitats.

Rare Lichen Habitat – Mature Hardwoods Maple Grove – Tippenlot
The mature hardwood forest habitat of the Maple Grove / Tippenlot North Area harbours lichens that are both provincially and nationally rare. Scaly fringe lichen is found there and is newly designated as ‘Threatened’ by COSEWICFootnote 4 (December 2022). Fundy National Park is the only Parks Canada site in which it is known to occur. Appalachian speckleback lichen also inhabits this area and is critically imperilled in the province, and vulnerable at the national level.

Devil’s Half-Acre Critical Bat Habitat
The topography and rock formations of the Devil’s Half Acre area lend themselves to the formations of deep fissures and caverns, which have housed colonies of little brown myotis in the past. Although no known hibernacula exist there currently, this area was designated critical habitat in the recent “Recovery Strategy for the Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus), the Northern Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), and the Tri-colored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus) in Canada.”

Non-Conforming Uses
Some zones support uses or activities that do not conform to the spirit and intentions of the zone type. Non-conforming uses in Zone II include cell towers, the Wolfe Lake Dam and access road, Hydro corridor, the pumphouse and access road adjacent to the Salmon River. The sewage lagoon is a non-conforming use in Zone III.

Declared Wilderness Area
The intent of legally designating a portion of a national park as wilderness is to maintain its wilderness character in perpetuity. Only activities that are unlikely to impair the wilderness character of the area may be authorized within the declared wilderness area of Fundy National Park.

A wilderness area was formally established in Fundy National Park in 2009. In general, the declared wilderness area boundaries follow Zone II – Wilderness boundaries. In addition, where Zone I – Special Preservation areas are included in or are adjacent to Zone II areas or are large enough to be considered on their own, they may be included in declared wilderness areas. This is the case for Fundy National Park where Zones I and II make up the DWA for the park and cover approximately 89 per cent of the park’s land base.

The map shows the regional geographic setting of Fort St. James National Historic Site and includes several surrounding First Nations, provincial parks, lakes and rivers.
Map 3 Zoning Map

8.0 Strategic Environmental Assessment

All national park management plans are assessed through a strategic environmental assessment to understand the potential for cumulative effects.  This understanding contributes to evidence-based decision-making that supports ecological integrity being maintained or restored over the life of the plan.  The strategic environmental assessment for the management plan for Fundy National Park considered the potential impacts of climate change, local and regional activities around the park, expected increase in visitation and proposals within the management plan.  The strategic environmental assessment analyzed the potential impacts on different aspects of the ecosystem, including Atlantic Salmon and terrestrial connectivity.

The management plan will result in many positive impacts on the environment, including continued efforts to recover the Atlantic salmon population; protecting ecological connectivity through collaboration, partnerships and restoration; improving energy efficiency for park operations; development of visitor use management plans to mitigate impacts at high visitation areas of the park; and zoning amendments to increase conservation and protection of areas within the park.

While many ecological integrity measures in the park are in fair to good condition, some require sustained active management for continued improvement. Atlantic salmon, inner Bay of Fundy population, are an endangered species and numbers of adult salmon returning to the park to spawn are poor. Restoration initiatives have increased numbers of returning salmon but continued focus on recovery is required to maintain this trend. External development, particularly commercial forestry, impacts riparian habitat posing a challenge to effective conservation of the species. Climate change and conditions at sea further impact the species. The Atlantic Salmon inner Bay of Fundy action plan sets out direction for the park to recover the species. The management plan identifies goals to support continued recovery efforts of Atlantic salmon including improving freshwater ecosystem trends through salmon restoration, informing salmon monitoring and conservation initiatives through Indigenous knowledge and guidance, and understanding the effects of climate change on species within the park.

Fundy National Park has a high trail/km2 density, and the trail network bisects large patches of forest. In addition, Highway 114 bisects the park for 21 kilometres. Increased visitation, internal and external infrastructure development and recreational activities result in cumulative effects that contribute to decreased terrestrial connectivity within the park and to neighbouring areas. This impacts wildlife movement and habitat occupancy. A carnivore habitat connectivity study was conducted to assess the quality of connectivity corridors used by wide-ranging carnivores within the park and surrounding lands to inform the strategic environmental assessment. The management plan identifies goals to protect and improve connectivity including the development of an active working group with Indigenous partners and regional partners; development of a new multispecies action plan considering landscape connectivity; and protecting and restoring ecological corridors.

Indigenous peoples, partners, stakeholders and the public will be consulted on the draft management plan and summary of the draft strategic environmental assessment. Feedback will be considered and incorporated into the strategic environmental assessment and management plan as appropriate.
The strategic environmental assessment was conducted in accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2010) and facilitated an evaluation of how the management plan contributed to the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy. Individual projects undertaken to implement management plan objectives at the site will be evaluated to determine if an impact assessment is required under the Impact Assessment Act, or successor legislation.  The Management Plan supports the following Federal Sustainable Development Strategy goals, namely:

  • Foster innovation and green infrastructure in Canada;
  • Take action on climate change and its impacts; and
  • Protect and recover species, conserve Canadian biodiversity.

Many positive environmental effects are expected and there are no significant negative environmental effects anticipated from implementation of the Fundy National Park Management Plan.

Appendix 1 Environmentally Sensitive

1. Salamander Habitat
Hemidactylium scutatum (four-toed salamander) In New Brunswick, this species is known from only one confirmed site in Fundy National Park. Although a park-wide survey in 1999 has confirmed its presence at only one location in the park, potential habitats also exist at several other locations.

Ambystoma laterale (blue-spotted salamander) With a patchy distribution in southern New Brunswick, this species is known from only one location in Fundy National Park.

Desmognathus fuscus (dusky salamander) Fundy National Park is the only national park in Canada in which this species is present, and it is found at only one location within the park.

2. Rare Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts)
Cyrtomnium hymenophylloides This is a significant bryophyte species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence region. It is an example of an arctic-alpine species, requiring specific habitat conditions. It is found at four locations in Fundy National Park, two of which are protected within Zone I areas. A third site is designated as an environmentally sensitive site because it is vulnerable due to its easily accessible location.

Hygrophynum montanum This is a significant bryophyte species, infrequent in the Gulf of St. Lawrence region, and known from only one location in New Brunswick, found in Fundy National Park in 1968.

Radula tenax The discovery of this liverwort species growing on a humid shaded cliff in Fundy National Park represents the only record of its existence in Canada.

Tetrodontium brownianum A boreal species of moss with a disjunct distribution in North America, it is found in three sites in the park where it is highly habitat-specific.

Tortella humilis A moss species considered rare in the Gulf of St. Lawrence Region, which is at its northern limit in the park.

3. Rare Vascular Plant Species
Habernaria hyperborea (leafy green orchid) This species is rare in the park, where it is found in only a few locations.

Sanguisorba canadensis (Canada burnet) This plant is rare in New Brunswick and in the park, where it is found at only two locations.

4. Atlantic Salmon Pools and Spawning Habitat
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) The inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic salmon population has been assessed as Endangered by COSEWIC as of May 2001 and is listed as Endangered under Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. In the park, two rivers contain critical habitat for this species.

5. Rare Salt Marsh Habitat Salt marsh vegetation communities are rare in the park. The only habitat in the park for mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) and ninespine sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius), is found in one of the salt marsh estuaries.

6. Frost Pocket Heathland Plant associations and climatic conditions found in the frost pocket heathland are unique in the park, and are representative of flora usually found in more northerly climates.

7. Eastern Waterfan (Peltigera hydrothyria) is an aquatic species of lichen that inhabits cool, clear, relatively undisturbed forested streams. Prior to 2017 it was only known in New Brunswick from 3 locations (2 in Fundy National Park). Recent survey work revealed that Fundy National Park is a stronghold for this rare aquatic lichen, with nearly half of its Canadian population occurring within the boundaries of the park. Originally known to occur in 2 brooks in Fundy, it has since been discovered growing in nearly 30 brooks and counting. Eastern waterfan is listed as Threatened in Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act and critical habitat occurs within the park.



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